|Title||Estimation of the carrier frequency of fumarate hydratase alterations and implications for kidney cancer risk in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cancer.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Shuch, B, Li, S, Risch, H, Bindra, RS, McGillivray, PD, Gerstein, M|
|Date Published||2020 08 15|
|Keywords||Adult, Exome, Female, Fumarate Hydratase, Gene Frequency, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Germ-Line Mutation, Heterozygote, Humans, Kidney, Kidney Neoplasms, Leiomyomatosis, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary, Risk Factors, Skin Neoplasms, Uterine Neoplasms|
BACKGROUND: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cancer (HLRCC) is a cancer syndrome associated with a germline mutation in fumarate hydratase (FH). The syndrome is associated with cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas, and some patients develop a lethal form of kidney cancer. This study provides estimates for the FH carrier frequency and kidney cancer penetrance.
METHODS: Data sets containing sequencing data for the FH gene were used: the 1000 Genomes Project (1000GP) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). Alterations in the FH gene were characterized on the basis of different variant risk tiers: 1) ClinVar annotated variants, 2) loss-of-function alterations, and 3) highly impactful missense alterations. The cumulative incidence of FH alterations overall and by different world populations was evaluated in 1000GP and ExAC. A lifetime penetrance of HLRCC kidney cancer risk was generated with 3 estimates of the annual incidence.
RESULTS: The overall allele frequencies of tier 1 to 3 FH alterations in the ExAC and 1000GP data sets were 2.54 × 10 (1 in 393) and 1.20 × 10 (1 in 835), respectively. There were differences in the allele frequencies of FH alterations between world populations. Based on various estimates of the percentage of kidney cancers with FH alterations, the lifetime kidney cancer penetrance for carrier estimate 3 in ExAC was 1.7% to 5.8%.
CONCLUSIONS: FH alterations are common and are carried by approximately 1 in 1000 individuals according to the more conservative estimates. The lifetime kidney cancer penetrance appears lower than previously estimated. Although databases are not population cohorts, they provide a useful quantitative estimate of rare variants with low penetrance.
|Grant List||UM1 HG006504 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States |
R01 HG008126 / NH / NIH HHS / United States
K08 CA207845 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 HG008126 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States
UM1 HG006504 / NH / NIH HHS / United States
1K08CA207845-01 / NH / NIH HHS / United States