GGC Repeat Expansion and Exon 1 Methylation of XYLT1 Is a Common Pathogenic Variant in Baratela-Scott Syndrome.

TitleGGC Repeat Expansion and Exon 1 Methylation of XYLT1 Is a Common Pathogenic Variant in Baratela-Scott Syndrome.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsLaCroix, AJ, Stabley, D, Sahraoui, R, Adam, MP, Mehaffey, M, Kernan, K, Myers, CT, Fagerstrom, C, Anadiotis, G, Akkari, YM, Robbins, KM, Gripp, KW, Baratela, WAR, Bober, MB, Duker, AL, Doherty, D, Dempsey, JC, Miller, DG, Kircher, M, Bamshad, MJ, Nickerson, DA, Mefford, HC, Sol-Church, K
Corporate AuthorsUniversity of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics
JournalAm J Hum Genet
Date Published2019 Jan 03

Baratela-Scott syndrome (BSS) is a rare, autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphisms, developmental delay, and skeletal dysplasia caused by pathogenic variants in XYLT1. We report clinical and molecular investigation of 10 families (12 individuals) with BSS. Standard sequencing methods identified biallelic pathogenic variants in XYLT1 in only two families. Of the remaining cohort, two probands had no variants and six probands had only a single variant, including four with a heterozygous 3.1 Mb 16p13 deletion encompassing XYLT1 and two with a heterozygous truncating variant. Bisulfite sequencing revealed aberrant hypermethylation in exon 1 of XYLT1, always in trans with the sequence variant or deletion when present; both alleles were methylated in those with no identified variant. Expression of the methylated XYLT1 allele was severely reduced in fibroblasts from two probands. Southern blot studies combined with repeat expansion analysis of genome sequence data showed that the hypermethylation is associated with expansion of a GGC repeat in the XYLT1 promoter region that is not present in the reference genome, confirming that BSS is a trinucleotide repeat expansion disorder. The hypermethylated allele accounts for 50% of disease alleles in our cohort and is not present in 130 control subjects. Our study highlights the importance of investigating non-sequence-based alterations, including epigenetic changes, to identify the missing heritability in genetic disorders.

Alternate JournalAm. J. Hum. Genet.
PubMed ID30554721
PubMed Central IDPMC6323552
Grant ListUM1 HG006493 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States