Rapid molecular diagnostics of severe primary immunodeficiency determined by using targeted next-generation sequencing.

TitleRapid molecular diagnostics of severe primary immunodeficiency determined by using targeted next-generation sequencing.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsYu, H, Zhang, VWei, Stray-Pedersen, A, Hanson, ICeline, Forbes, LR, M de la Morena, T, Chinn, IK, Gorman, E, Mendelsohn, NJ, Pozos, T, Wiszniewski, W, Nicholas, SK, Yates, AB, Moore, LE, Berge, KErik, Sorte, H, Bayer, DK, ALZahrani, D, Geha, RS, Feng, Y, Wang, G, Orange, JS, Lupski, JR, Wang, J, Wong, L-J
JournalJ Allergy Clin Immunol
Date Published2016 10
KeywordsAdolescent, Child, Female, Genetic Variation, Humans, Male, Pathology, Molecular, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are inherited disorders of the immune system. The most severe form, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), presents with profound deficiencies of T cells, B cells, or both at birth. If not treated promptly, affected patients usually do not live beyond infancy because of infections. Genetic heterogeneity of SCID frequently delays the diagnosis; a specific diagnosis is crucial for life-saving treatment and optimal management.

OBJECTIVE: We developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based multigene-targeted panel for SCID and other severe PIDDs requiring rapid therapeutic actions in a clinical laboratory setting.

METHODS: The target gene capture/NGS assay provides an average read depth of approximately 1000×. The deep coverage facilitates simultaneous detection of single nucleotide variants and exonic copy number variants in one comprehensive assessment. Exons with insufficient coverage (

RESULTS: Analysis of 20 patient samples with low T-cell receptor excision circle numbers on newborn screening or a positive family history or clinical suspicion of SCID or other severe PIDD identified deleterious mutations in 14 of them. Identified pathogenic variants included both single nucleotide variants and exonic copy number variants, such as hemizygous nonsense, frameshift, and missense changes in IL2RG; compound heterozygous changes in ATM, RAG1, and CIITA; homozygous changes in DCLRE1C and IL7R; and a heterozygous nonsense mutation in CHD7.

CONCLUSION: High-throughput deep sequencing analysis with complete clinical validation greatly increases the diagnostic yield of severe primary immunodeficiency. Establishing a molecular diagnosis enables early immune reconstitution through prompt therapeutic intervention and guides management for improved long-term quality of life.

Alternate JournalJ. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PubMed ID27484032
Grant ListR01 NS058529 / NS / NINDS NIH HHS / United States
U54 HG006542 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States